Engineering structures are made of materials from matter found in the universe. At every level—atomic, nano, micro, and macro—the components in the matter interact with each other and merge together continuously, assuming various states that, for example, identify initiation (birth) to the end or failure (death). The interaction or coupling plays a signiicant role in the response of materials and hence, engineering systems.


Then, the coupling under external inluences or forces at the micro level between particles, luid, air, temperature, and chemicals in a material element, between structural and geologic materials at interfaces, and between rock masses and joints is of utmost importance. Thus, the understanding and the characterization of the behavior of materials are vital for the solution of geotechnical systems. This book attempts to address these issues.ADVANCED GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

For a long time, geotechnical engineers have used simpliied and computer- oriented schemes to analyze and design problems that involve advanced conditions such as soil–structure interaction and the effect of coupled behavior of luid–geologic materials on the response of structures and foundations. They have involved analytical and closed-form solutions based on linear elastic Boussinesq’s theory, and limit equilibrium for evaluating ultimate or failure loads. ADVANCED GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

However, many geotechnical problems are affected by important factors that cannot be handled by simpliied and conventional solution procedures. Such factors may include nonhomogeneity and layering, arbitrary geometries, nonlinear material behavior, special behavior of interfaces and joints, interaction between structures and geologic materials, effects of luids and other environmental factors, and repetitive and dynamic loadings.

The realistic solutions of practical problems involving those factors require the use of numerical techniques such as the inite difference (FD), inite element (FE), and boundary element (BE) methods based on the use of modern computers.

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