INTRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE :
We call ourselves Homo sapiens-man the wise-because our mental capacities are so important to us. For thousands of years, we have tried to understand how we think;that is, how a mere handful of stuff can perceive, understand, predict, arid manipulate a world far larger and more complicated than itself.
The field of artificial intelligence, or AI, goes further still: it attempts not just to understand but also to build intelligent entities. is one of the newest sciences. Work started in earnest soon after World War and the name itself was coined in 1956. Along with molecular biology, is regularly cited as the “field I would most like to be in” by scientists in other disciplines.
A student in physics might reasonably feel that all the good ideas have already been taken by Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and the rest. on the other hand, still has openings for several full-time Einsteins. currently encompasses a huge variety of subfields, ranging from general-purpose
areas, such as learning and perception to such specific tasks as playing chess, proving mathematical theorems, writing poetry, and diagnosing diseases. systematizes and automates intellectual tasks and is therefore potentially relevant to any sphere of human intellectual activity. In this sense, it is truly a universal field.
WHAT IS AI?
We have claimed that is exciting, but we have not said what it is. Definitions of artificial intelligence according to eight textbooks are shown in Figure These definitions vary along two main dimensions.
Roughly, the ones on top are concerned with thought processes and reasoning, whereas the ones on the bottom address The definitions on the left measure success in terms of fidelity to human performance, whereas the ones on the right RATIONALITY measure against an ideal concept of intelligence, which we will call rationality. A system is rational if it does the “right thing,” given what it knows.
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