Surveying may be defined as the science of determining the position, in three dimensions, of natural and man-made features on or beneath the surface of the Earth. These features may be represented in analogue form as a contoured map, plan or chart, or in digital form such as a digital ground model (DGM).


In engineering surveying, either or both of the above formats may be used for planning, design and construction of works, both on the surface and underground. At a later stage, surveying techniques are used for dimensional control or setting out of designed constructional elements and also for monitoring deformation movements.ENGINEERING SURVEYING

In the first instance, surveying requires management and decision making in deciding the appropriate methods and instrumentation required to complete the task satisfactorily to the specified accuracy and within the time limits available. This initial process can only be properly executed after very careful and detailed reconnaissance of the area to be surveyed.

Surveying is indispensable to the engineer when planning, designing and constructing a project, so all engineers should have a thorough understanding of the limits of accuracy possible in the construction
and manufacturing processes. This knowledge, combined with an equal understanding of the limits and capabilities of surveying instrumentation and techniques, will enable the engineer to complete the project
successfully in the most economical manner and in the shortest possible time.

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