INTRODUCTION OF FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION SYSTEM :
A communication system transmits information from one place to another, whether separated by a few kilometers or by transoceanic distances. Information is often carried by an electromagnetic carrier wave whose frequency can vary from a few megahertz to several hundred terahertz. Optical communication systems use high carrier frequencies (∼100 THz) in the visible or near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
They are sometimes called lightwave systems to distinguish them from microwave systems, whose carrier frequency is typically smaller by five orders of magnitude (∼1 GHz). Fiber-optic communication systems are lightwave systems that employ optical fibers for information transmission. Such systems have been deployed worldwide since 1980 and have indeed revolutionized the technology behind telecommunications.
Indeed, the lightwave technology, together with microelectronics, is believed to be a major factor in the advent of the “information age.” The objective of this book is to describe fiber-optic communication systems in a comprehensive manner. The emphasis is on the fundamental aspects, but the engineering issues are also discussed. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to present the basic concepts and to provide the background material. Section 1.1 gives a historical perspective on the development of optical communication systems.
. In Section 1.2 we cover concepts such as analog and digital signals, channel multiplexing, and modulation formats. Relative merits of guided and unguided optical communication systems are discussed in Section 1.3. The last section focuses on the building blocks of a fiber-optic communication system.
Basic Concepts :
This section introduces a few basic concepts common to all communication systems. We begin with a description of analog and digital signals and describe how an analog signal can be converted into digital form. We then consider time- and frequencydivision multiplexing of input signals, and conclude with a discussion of various modulation formats.
Lightwave System Components :
The generic block diagram of Fig. 1.10 applies to a fiber-optic communication system, the only difference being that the communication channel is an optical fiber cable. The other two components, the optical transmitter and the optical receiver, are designed to meet the needs of such a specific communication channel.
In this section we discuss the general issues related to the role of optical fiber as a communication channel and
to the design of transmitters and receivers. The objective is to provide an introductory overview, as the three components are discussed in detail in Chapters 2–4.