INTRODUCTION OF GEOTEXTILE DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE :
The oldest published reference to a fabric material being used in the context of a current geotextile application is that of Beckham and Mills (1935).They used a woven cotton fabric to separate and stabilize the soil subgrade of an unpaved road in South Carolina. They reported that 8 years later the fabric had degraded from soil microorganisms to the point that it could hardly be identiﬁed.
Additional trials were made by the Bureau of Public Roads in several US states at about the same time with natural fabrics,butthestagewas setfortheuseofnonbiodegradablepolymer fabrics,whichis the focus of this chapter. Called by various names over the subsequent decades, eg, ﬁlter fabrics, synthetic fabrics, road rugs, construction cloth, bauvlies/ﬁltermatte (German for “construction ﬂeece”/“ﬁltration mat”), etc., the name of “geotextiles” (coined by J.-P. Giroud in 1985) is currently used worldwide.GEOTEXTILE DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE
The information to follow about geotextile types and their myriad applications will be taken from published papers or manufacturers’ brochures. In this regard,it is recognized that many trials were undertaken by large chemical companies, specialty manufacturers, federal and state regulatory agencies, etc., but unless they were published in reasonably accessible literature these undoubtedly noble efforts will not be included. GEOTEXTILE DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE
This is not meant to diminish the respective contributions from people and/or companies that did not publish; it is merely to provide a degree of control regarding accessibility, peer review, and appreciation for the individual authors for making their contributions available .Also ,the focus is on geotextile applications ratherthan the theory and laboratory testing that was being done at the time. This was primarily done to convince regulators, owners, and design engineers, who generally require actual ﬁeld applications, to do likewise. GEOTEXTILE DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE