# HEAT TRANSFER A PRACTICAL APPROACH

INTRODUCTION OF HEAT TRANSFER A PRACTICAL APPROACH : The science of thermodynamics deals with the amount of energy transfer as
a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another, and
makes no reference to how long the process will take. But in engineering, we are often interested in the rate of heat transfer, which is the topic of
the science of heat transfer.

We start this chapter with a review of the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics that form the framework for heat transfer. We first present the relation of heat to other forms of energy and review the first law of thermodynamics. We then present the three basic mechanisms of heat transfer, which are conduction, convection, and radiation, and discuss thermal conductivity.

Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a
substance to the adjacent, less energetic ones as a result of interactions between the particles. Convection is the mode of heat transfer between a solid surface and the adjacent liquid or gas that is in motion, and it involves the combined effects of conduction and fluid motion. Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves (or photons) as a result of the changes in the electronic configurations of the atoms or molecules. We close this chapter with a discussion of simultaneous heat transfer.

We all know from experience that a cold canned drink left in a room warms up and a warm canned drink left in a refrigerator cools down. This is accomplished by the transfer of energy from the warm medium to the cold one. The energy transfer is always from the higher temperature medium to the lower temperature one, and the energy transfer stops when the two mediums reach the same temperature.

You will recall from thermodynamic that energy exists in various forms. In this text we are primarily interested in heat, which is the form of energy that can be transferred from one system to another as a result of temperature difference. The science that deals with the determination of the rates of such energy transfers is heat transfer.