INTRODUCTION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE :
Internal combustion engines date back to 1876 when Otto first developed the spark-ignition engine and 1892 when Diesel invented the compression-ignition engine. Since that time these engines have continued to develop as our knowledge of engine processes has increased, as new technologies became available, as demand for new types of engine arose, and as environmental constraints on engine use changed.
Internal combustion engines, and the industries that develop and manufacture them and support their use, now play a dominant role in the fields of power, propulsion, and energy. The last twenty-five years or so have seen an explosive growth in engine research and development as the issues of air pollution, fuel cost, and market competitiveness have become increasingly impor- tant.
An enormous technical literature on engines now exists which has yet to be adequately organized and summarized.