INTRODUCTION OF SEMICONDUCTOR :
The pace of semiconductor materials and device development has been staggering, and the impact on human society monumental. Leading this advance has been the development of the silicon-based MOSFET device and its continuous high level of integration. Moore’s Law, which predicts the doubling of device density every 18 months, has been the governing maxim of the industry.
Sustaining Moore’s Law has required:
• The development of lithography tools to achieve the 45 nm gate length MOSFETs released into production in 2006
• The continuous scaling of silicon wafers to 12 inch diameters (2005) and 15 inch in theROBOT DYNAMICS AND CONTROL future to enable large chip yields per wafer
• Tremendous advances in interconnect technology
• Device innovations to continuously maintain charge control and low gate leakage as theELECTRIC POWER GENERATION
oxide thickness is scaled down along with the gate length Though most of the chip and dollar volume of the industry has been driven by Si-based CMOS architecture, there have been critical advances made in other semiconductor technologies.
The ability to grow epitaxial layers in a controlled fashion, initially by Liquid Phase Expitaxy (LPE) and Vapor Phase Epitaxy (VPE) and currently by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), has enabled the compound semiconductor industry to mature into a small but critical component of the total space. The impact has been felt in both the electronics and photonics arenas.
In the former, development of the Heterojunction Field Effect Transistor (HFET) and the Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT) has had a large impact on analog and mixed signal applications. In the low noise receiver area, GaAs and InP based HFETs are the preferred technology. The GaAs-based HBT is preferred for power amplifiers in cellular phones. The Si/SiGe HBT is being actively used in mixed signal applications such as A/D converters and in BiCMOS implementations.ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS FLUID DYNAMICS
In the optical arena, the development of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), lasers, and detectors has been profound. LEDs are used in prolific applications such as signage displays and remote controls as well as in communication devices. The advent of GaN-based LEDs has raised the possibility of a revolutionary advance in lighting with the emergence of solid-state lighting. DATA STRUCTURES WITH JAVA