# SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

**INTRODUCTION OF SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB :**

The core of the material is presented in the second and third part of the book. The second part of the book covers the basics of continuous-time signals and systems and illustrates their application. Because the concepts of signals and systems are relatively new to students, we provide an extensive and complete presentation of these topics in Chapters 1 and 2. The presentation in Chapter 1 goes from a very general characterization of signals to very specific classes that will be used in the rest of the book.

One of the aims is to familiarize students with continuous-time as well as discrete-time signals so as to avoid confusion in their processing later on—a common difficulty encountered by students. SEMICONDUCTOR

Chapter 1 initiates the representation of signals in terms of basic signals that will be easily processed later with the transform methods.

Chapter 2 introduces the general concept of systems, in particular continuous-time systems. The concepts of linearity, time invariance, causality, and stability are introduced in this chapter, trying as much as possible to use the students’ background in circuit theory. Using linearity and time invariance, the computation of the output of a continuous-time system using the convolution integral is introduced and illustrated with relatively simple examples. More complex examples are treated with the Laplace transform in the following chapter.ROBOT DYNAMICS AND CONTROL

Chapter 3 covers the basics of the Laplace transform and its application in the analysis of continuous-time signals and systems. It introduces the student to the concept of poles and zeros, damping and frequency, and their connection with the signal as a function of time. This chapter emphasizes the solution of differential equations representing linear time-invariant (LTI) systems, paying special attention to transient solutions due

to their importance in control, as well as to steady-state solutions due to their importance in filtering and in communications.

The convolution integral is dealt with in time and using the Laplace transform to emphasize the operational power of the transform. The important concept of transfer function for LTI systems and the significance of its poles and zeros are studied in detail. Different approaches are considered in computing the inverse Laplace transform, including MATLAB methods.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

Fourier analysis of continuous-time signals and systems is covered in detail in Chapters 4 and 5. The Fourier series analysis of periodic signals, covered in Chapter 4, is extended to the analysis of aperiodic signals resulting in the Fourier transform of Chapter 5. The Fourier transform is useful in representing both periodic and aperiodic signals.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLABELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

Special attention is given to the connection of these methods with the Laplace transform so that, whenever possible, known Laplace transforms can be used to compute the Fourier series coefficients and the Fourier transform—thus avoiding integration but using the concept of the region of convergence. The concept of frequency, the response of the system (connected to the location of poles and zeros of the transfer function), and the steady-state response are emphasized in these chapters.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLABELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

The ordering of the presentation of the Laplace and the Fourier transformations (similar to the Z-transform and the Fourier representation of discrete-time signals) is significant for learning and teaching of the material.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

xiv Preface Our approach of presenting first the Laplace transform and then the Fourier series and Fourier transform is justified by several reasons. For one, students coming into a signals and systems course have been familiarized with the Laplace transform in their previous circuits or differential equations courses, and will continue using it in control courses. So expertise in this topic is important and the learned material will stay with them longer.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

Another is that a common difficulty students have in applying the Fourier series and the Fourier transform is connected with the required integration. The Laplace transform can be used not only to sidestep the integration but to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the frequency representation. By asking students to consider the two-sided Laplace transform and the significance of its region of convergence, they will appreciate better the Fourier representation as a special case of Laplace’s in many cases. More importantly, these transforms can be seen as a continuum rather than as different transforms.FLUID DYNAMICS

It also makes theoretical sense to deal with the Laplace representation of systems first to justify the existence of the steady-state solution considered in the Fourier representations, which would not exist unless stability of the system is guaranteed, and stability can only be tested using the Laplace transform. The paradigm of interest is the connection of transient and steady-state responses that must be understood by students before they can understand the connections between Fourier and Laplace analyses.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

Chapter 6 presents applications of the Laplace and the Fourier transforms to control, communications, and filtering. The intent of the chapter is to motivate interest in these areas. The chapter illustrates the significance of the concepts of transfer function, response of systems, and stability in control, and of modulation in communications. An introduction to analog filtering is provided.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

Analytic as well as MATLAB examples illustrate different applications to control, communications, and filter design. Using the sampling theory as a bridge, the third part of the book covers the theory and illustrates the application of discrete-time signals and systems. Chapter 7 presents the theory of sampling: the conditions under which the signal does not lose information in the sampling process and the recovery of the analog signal from the sampled signal. Once the basic concepts are given, the analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are considered to provide a practical understanding of the conversion of analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog signals.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

Discrete-time signals and systems are discussed in Chapter 8, while Chapter 9 introduces the Z-transform. Although the treatment of discrete-time signals and systems in Chapter 8 mirrors that of continuous-time signals and systems, special emphasis is given in this chapter to issues that are different in the two domains. Issues such as the discrete nature of the time, the periodicity of the discrete frequency, the possible lack of periodicity

of discrete sinusoids, etc. are considered. SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

Chapter 9 provides the basic theory of the Z-transform and how it relates to the Laplace transform. The material in this chapter bears similarity to the one on the Laplace transform in terms of operational solution of difference equations, transfer function, and the significance of poles and zeros.

Chapter 10 presents the Fourier analysis of discrete signals and systems. Given the accumulated experience of the students with continuous-time signals and systems, we build the discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT) on the Z-transform and consider special cases where the Z-transform cannot be used. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is obtained from the Fourier series of discrete-time signals and sampling in frequency. The DFT will be of great significance in digital signal processing. The computation of the DFT of periodic and aperiodic discretetime signals using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is illustrated. The FFT is an efficient algorithm for computing the DFT, and some of the basics of this algorithm are discussed in Chapter 12.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

Chapter 11 introduces students to discrete filtering, thus extending the analog filtering in Chapter 6. In this chapter we show how to use the theory of analog filters to design recursive discrete low-pass filters. Frequency transformations are then presented to show how to obtain different types of filters from low-pass prototype filters.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

The design of finite-impulse filters using the window method is considered next. Finally, the implementation of recursive and nonrecursive filters is shown using some basic techniques. By using MATLAB for the design of recursive and nonrecursive discrete filters, it is expected that students will be motivated to pursue on their own the use of more sophisticated filter designs.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

Finally, Chapter 12 explores topics of interest in digital communications, computer control, and digital signal processing. The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief presentation of topics that students could pursue after the basic courses in signals and systems.SIGNAL AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS USING MATLAB

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